Effects of dietary levels of essential oil (EO) extract from bitter lemon (Citrus limon) fruit peels on growth, biochemical, haemato-immunological parameters and disease resistance in Juvenile Labeo victorianus ﬁngerlings challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila
Okoth, Elijah Oyoo
Ngugi, Charles C.
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Essential oils (EOs) are used in the food industry because of their biological activity. We evaluated the effects of administration of essential oil (EO) extracted from bitter lemon (Citrus limon) fruit peels on the growth performance, biochemical, haemato-immunological parameters and possible disease resistance in ﬁngerlings (4 weeks old) Labeo victorianus challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish were divided into ﬁve groups and fed diets supplemented with C. limon fruit peels EO extract at 1%, 2%, 5% and 8% [as fed basis] and treatment compared with control group fed diet without C. limon fruit peels EO extract. The experiment was executed in triplicate. Concentration of plasma cortisol, glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol decreased while that of total protein and albumin increased as dietary inclusion of the EO extract of C. limon fruit peels was increased from 2% to 5%. Meanwhile haemato-immunological parameters including red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC) counts, haematocrit (Htc), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and neutrophiles increased with increasing dietary inclusion from 1% to 5% inclusion of C. limon fruit peels EO extract. Serum immunoglobulins, lysozyme activity and respiratory burst increased with increasing dietary levels up to 5% inclusion of EO extract of C. limon fruit peels. We demonstrate that formulation of feeds by incorporating upto 5% the EO extract from C. limon fruit peels signiﬁcantly improved biochemical, haematological and immunological response in juvenile ﬁsh resulting to lower mortality than the untreated groups and appear to be effective antibacterial against A. hydrophila.